What is Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation and ulcers in the colon. The disease is a type of colitis, which is a group of diseases that cause inflammation of the colon, the largest section of the large intestine, either in segments or completely. The main symptom of active disease is diarrhea mixed with blood. Ulcerative colitis has much in common with Crohn’s disease, another form of IBD, but what sets it apart from Crohn’s disease is that ulcerative colitis, as its name suggests, only affects the colon and rectum, rather than the whole GI tract. Ulcerative colitis is an intermittent disease, with periods of exacerbated symptoms, and periods that are relatively symptom-free. Although the symptoms of ulcerative colitis can sometimes diminish on their own, the disease usually requires treatment to go into remission.
Although UC has no known cause, there is a presumed genetic risk. Rates tend to be higher in wealthier countries, which may indicate the increased rate is due to better diagnosis. It may also indicate that an industrial or Western diet and lifestyle increases the rate of disease, including symptoms which may or may not be related to ulcerative colitis. The disease may be triggered in a susceptible person by environmental factors. Dietary modification may reduce the discomfort of a person with the disease.
Like Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis is both classed as and managed as an autoimmune disease. Treatment is with anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppression, and biological therapy targeting specific components of the immune response. Colectomy (partial or total removal of the large bowel through surgery) is occasionally necessary if the disease is severe, does not respond to treatment, or if significant complications develop. A total proctocolectomy (removal of the entirety of the large bowel and rectum) can cure ulcerative colitis as the disease only affects the large bowel and rectum and does not recur after removal of the latter. While extra-intestinal symptoms will remain, complications may develop.
Ulcerative colitis newly occurs in 1 to 20 people per 100,000 per year, and about 8 to 246 per 100,000 individuals are affected. The disease is more common in northern regions of the world. Together, ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease affect approximately 500,000 to 2 million people in the United States.